Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Evidence-Based, Holistic Programs :
Applying SEED :


Views on Family Planning and Long-Acting and Permanent Methods: Insights from Nigeria (Project Brief No. 10)
Nigeria, the most populous nation in Africa, has high levels of fertility and maternal mortality and very low levels of contraceptive use, with just 10% of married women of reproductive age using a modern contraceptive method. Thus, unmet need for family planning is high, especially unmet need for spacing births. As part of a broader study of attitudes about contraception, RESPOND conducted qualitative research among current female users of long-acting and permanent methods, postpartum women not practicing contraception, women who had discontinued method use, married men, and health care providers. Results revealed negative attitudes toward couples with few children, misinformation about long-acting methods, and gender norm–related barriers to contraceptive adoption. Stock-outs and provider biases also were noted as problems.
Available in English (PDF, 3.3 MB)

Factors Underlying the Use of Long-Acting and Permanent Family Planning Methods in Nigeria: A Qualitative Study (Report No. 5)
Long-acting and permanent methods of contraception (LA/PMs) are safe and cost-effective family planning methods for women who desire to delay or limit births, yet they are often underutilized. In Nigeria, these methods contribute only about 10% of all modern contraceptive use. Qualitative research conducted by RESPOND partner Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health Center for Communication Programs (JHU•CCP) revealed some of the attitudes and beliefs that hinder demand for LA/PMs in Nigeria. Despite general awareness about family planning methods, considerable misinformation about specific LA/PMs persists. Fear of side effects is a key factor hindering family planning use. Study participants felt that husbands often resist the idea of modern method use because they lack knowledge about such methods, believe myths and negative rumors about them, and associate family planning with women's infidelity. Women need to learn how to use convincing, evidence-based arguments to counter husbands' resistance to contraceptive use.
Available in English (PDF, 2.1 MB)

Long-Acting and Permanent Methods: Critical for Expanding Choice, Increasing Program Impact, and Saving Lives—Findings and Recommendations
In 2010, RESPOND led an assessment of LA/PMs to: 1) assess the use of, unmet need for, trends in, and current programs for LA/PMs in the country; and 2) develop strategic approaches for strengthening access to and availability, quality, and use of these services. RESPOND used the SEED Model to frame the assessment as well as the recommendations, and encouraged collaboration at all levels to realize a synergistic, coordinated, and unified approach to addressing the expansion of LA/PMs. The assessment was used to frame the FP program for the USAID bilateral project’s proposal and SEED now underpins USAID’s bilateral assistance program.
Available in English (PDF, 1.8 MB)

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The RESPOND Project Digital Archive, Version 2.0