Designing, Implementing, and Evaluating Evidence-Based, Holistic Programs :
Applying SEED :



Holistic Approach Enhances Family Planning Programs: RESPOND’s Experience with the SEED Programming Model™ (Project Brief No. 27)
The Supply–Enabling Environment–Demand (SEED™) Programming Model is a holistic model developed by EngenderHealth to apply globally and locally to guide the design, implementation, and evaluation of family planning programs. RESPOND designed and implemented its activities using the SEED model as its principal programming and conceptual framework. This paper describes how SEED was used to frame global initiatives to advocate, promote, and support family planning as an essential primary health care intervention. It also presents specific country examples of how SEED enhanced and improved the outcomes of family planning programming, especially when all three elements worked in synergy.
Available in English (PDF, 3.1 MB)

Views on Family Planning and Long-Acting and Permanent Methods: Insights from Malawi (Project Brief No. 11)
Despite high levels of contraceptive knowledge in Malawi and a recent climb in the contraceptive prevalence rate, fertility rates remain elevated. As part of a broader study of attitudes about contraception, RESPOND conducted qualitative research among current female users of long-acting and permanent methods, postpartum women not practicing contraception, women who had discontinued method use, married men, and health care providers. Results revealed concerns and misunderstandings about modern contraceptives, particularly about permanent methods. Gender norms were seen as hindrances to contraceptive adoption. Satisfied clients could be deployed to talk about their chosen method, explain their reasons for adopting it, and discuss the advantages they derive from it.
Available in English (PDF, 3.5 MB)


Research Studies and Reports

Three Successful Sub-Saharan Africa Family Planning Programs: Lessons for Meeting the MDGs
Ethiopia, Malawi, and Rwanda appear to be moving more rapidly than other Sub-Saharan African countries toward Millennium Development Goal 5B, which calls for universal access to reproductive health, including family planning. How did these three countries make such strides? This report examines the similarities and differences among the countries, including the roles of individual leadership, financing systems, and country-specific geopolitical and demographic issues. The report also presents lessons that other countries can learn from experiences in these countries. It was compiled by USAID/Africa Bureau, USAID/Population and Reproductive Health, Ethiopia Federal Ministry of Health, Malawi Ministry of Health, and Rwanda Ministry of Health. The section on Malawi in this report was prepared by RESPOND Project staff.
Available in English (PDF, 1.3 MB)


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The RESPOND Project Digital Archive, Version 2.0